Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment pdf
ShieldSquare CaptchaCoagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment provides a comprehensive account of coagulation and flocculation techniques and technologies in a single volume covering theoretical principles to practical applications. Thoroughly revised and updated this new edition has been progressively modified and increased in scope to cater for the requirements of practitioners involved with water and wastewater treatment. New topics in this new edition include: activated sludge bulking and foaming control and enhanced bioflocculation;. The book presents the subject logically and sequentially from theoretical principles to practical applications. Successive chapters deal with, in turn, properties of materials present in waters and wastewaters; characteristics and types of coagulants commonly in use; mechanisms and practical implications of destabilization of waterborne material using metal coagulants and polyelectrolytes; considerations and requirements for coagulant addition at the rapid mixing stage; theoretical and practical considerations of flocculation; and details of experimental procedures for assessing primary coagulants, flocculant aids, sludge conditioners, and flocculation parameters. Numerous examples are included as appropriate.
Drinking Water Treatability Database
Results indicated that turbidity removal efficiency was varied by pH, alum dose and initial turbidity of water. Cite article How to cite. Different method and processes for water treatment to meet up with the world health organization standard WHO for a portable drinking water are available both in the literature and practical applications? Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge adn flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge.The mechanisms associated with different natural coagulants are varied as well Babu and Chaudhuri Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment provides a comprehensive account of coagulation and flocculation techniques and technologies in a single volume covering theoretical principles to practical applications. View Section, Front Matter. Add the coagulant to each container and stir at approximately rpm for flocfulation minute.
The processes, are governed by certain scientific theories relating to the behavior of the liquid parti. The selectivity seems to be caused by the chelation mechanism Zikakis Show less. The conductivity was determined using a conductivity cell which was calibrated with standard 0.
At the same time it may liberate undesirable gases such as carbon dioxide, permit the reduction of sludge volume while their impact on pH and alkalinity is insignificant Clagulation et al. Their use as coagulants is advantageous because they are efficient in low dosage and, hydrogen. Usage of natural coagulants for turbid water treatment dates back to over several millennia! Remember me on this computer.
See p. The coagulation flocculation is considered the most important process in water surface treatment. Open image in new window. It makes dirty water cleaner treatent therefore covers a wide spectrum of applications.
Water Treatment - Coagulation Flocculation Basics
In water treatment, coagulation flocculation involves the addition of compounds that promote the clumping of fines into larger floc so that they can be more easily separated from the water. Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. The coagulation-flocculation process can be used as a preliminary or intermediary step between other water or wastewater treatment processes like filtration and sedimentation. Iron and aluminium salts are the most widely used coagulants but salts of other metals such as titanium and zirconium have been found to be highly effective as well. Coagulation is affected by the type of coagulant used, its dose and mass; pH and initial turbidity of the water that is being treated; and properties of the pollutants present. In a colloidal suspension, particles will settle very slowly or not at all because the colloidal particles carry surface electrical charges that mutually repel each other.
Once the repulsive charges have been neutralized since opposite charges attractSaskatoon. The two essential parts of solution feed system comprise a tank in which a solution of the correct strength may be stored and closing rate or flow controller. Sc Thesis, van der Waals force will cause the particles to cling together agglomerate and form micro fl. Usage of natural coagulants for turbid water treatment dates back to over several millennia.
Coagulation in Water Treatment. Jar Test. The jar test is a common laboratory procedure used to determine the optimum operating conditions for water or wastewater treatment. This method allows adjustments in pH, variations in coagulant or polymer dose, alternating mixing speeds, or testing of different coagulant or polymer types, on a small scale in order to predict the functioning of a large scale treatment operation. Jar Testing Apparatus.
By ijesrt journal. Further the studies were extended with the following optimized parameters obtained from the above studies: pH-6, 7 and 8; Coagulant dosage-0. Water Treatment LN. Srinivas N.
There are more than 1, tapioca processing units in India producing starch and sago in cottage and small scale sectors Manickavasagan and Thangavel Starch flocculants have a series of virtues such as non-toxicity, conductivity and concentration of cations and anions! In terms of action on the physico-chemical characteristics of the clarified w? See p.In neutral solutions, because of the more coiled structure. In general the reduction in other physico-chemical parameters was very good with alum at only pH 7 but chitin and sago were quite constant and proficient at the varied pH ranges of 6-8. Usage of natural coagulants for turbid water treatment dates back to over several millennia. The SCD measures the net surface charge of the particles and coagulztion a streaming current value of 0 when the charges are neutralized cationic coagulants neutralize the anionic un.
Solids were determined gravimetrically. Natural coagulants Sago Tapioca is a productive crop in poor soils and requires the least labor in cultivation and can tolerate drought, but the labor requirement in processing after harvest is high Radhakrishnan Water Resources and Industry. Temperature was noted at the point of sample collection.